The Refugime method

The mud system can be doubt as the most basic and simply method of all that I’ve mentioned. Imagine putting a layer of ‘mud’/0 to 0.1 size cora sand, illuminating it with the tank light and growing various algaes on it.

This low-oxygen environment (anoxic) below the layers of mud, allows bacteria to perform de-nitrification process on the whole. The algae gives these creatures a good environment to live in and at the same time, provides a good ecology system for plants to grow. The plants will perform photosynthesis, a process which consumes a great amount of Ammonias (NH4), Nitrites (NO2), Nitrate (NO3) and rich debris. The illumination will further enhance the process, as well as, minimize the pH and carbon dioxide fluctuations within the aquarium.